It is defined as the tortuosity and abnormal dilation of the testicular veins in the pampiniform plexus within the spermatic cord caused by venous reflux.

  • A large percentage is asymptomatic (without symptoms), however, some report constant, throbbing pain in the testicular area that radiates to the groin. It mainly affects the left testicle in more than 95%.

Hereditary in a high percentage.


  • Hereditary.
  • Renal carcinoma.
  • Retroperitoneal tumor.
  • Retroperitoneal fibrosis.
  • Liver cirrhosis (due to portal hypertension).

Diagnosis is made by clinical examination, frequently observing a testicular decrease and the appearance of worms in the scrotal sac. It should be confirmed in doubtful cases with color Doppler ultrasound or in case of not having this with conventional testicular ultrasound.

The most recommended diagnostic studies to confirm varicocele mainly for being non-invasive are:

  • Color Doppler ultrasound.
  • Conventional ultrasound.

They are therapeutic indications of varicocele.

  • Symptomatic varicocele.
  • Decrease in testicular volume.
  • Varicocele grade 3.
  • Bilateral palpable varicocele.
  • Adolescents with varicocele and alterations of seminal parameters.

The therapeutic options recommended in varicocele cases are:

  • Open surgical treatment.
  • Laparoscopic
  • Radiologic.

Open surgery is the most common and easily accessible treatment for varicocele, however, in places where the proper structure is available, radiological embolization becomes the first choice.

It conditions long-term erectile dysfunction, as well as infertility.





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